Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft

Home/2021, Vol. 9, No. 2/Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft

Cell and Organ Transplantology. 2021; 9(2):116-124.
DOI: 10.22494/cot.v9i2.131

Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft

Zykova N., Kramar S., Lisnychuk N., Dovgalyuk A., Nebesna Z. 

  • I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University


Deep burns are characterized not only by skin damage, but also cause morphological and functional changes in all organs and systems of the body, which are defined as burn disease. Mediators of inflammatory response and nitroso-oxidative stress in thermal injury adversely affect the internal organs, including the pancreas. Xenografts made from porcine skin by cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization and mincing are used to treat burns.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the ultrastructural changes of blood capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas in the late period after skin burn and under its treatment with lyophilized porcine dermal xenografts.
Materials and methods. 46 adult outbred albino rats were divided into three groups: Group I – intact animals, Group II – rats with second-degree burn injury, Group III – animals with burn, which underwent necrectomy and the wound was covered with minced lyophilized porcine dermal graft. On the 14th and 21st days, electron microscopic examination of blood capillaries of the exocrine pancreas was performed and the erythrocyte index of intoxication, levels and coefficient of medium molecular weight peptides in the blood were determined.
Results. In Group I, the wall of the capillaries was formed by elongated endothelial cells, which localized on the basement membrane; there were single erythrocytes in the lumen. Endothelial cells contained an elongated nucleus, euchromatin prevailed in the karyoplasm, heterochromatin in the form of small granules had a marginal location. The luminal surface of the endothelium formed outgrowths of the cell membrane, which increased the area of the capillary wall. Pericyte nuclei contained euchromatin.
In Group II, the ultrastructure of blood capillaries was changed – their lumens were enlarged and contained clusters of blood cells. The integrity of capillary wall was disrupted. The nuclei were compacted with a prevalence of heterochromatin, pyknotic, had deep invagination of nucleolemma. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells was light, edematous; organelles are significantly damaged with single pinocytic vesicles. Pericytes contained electron-dense nuclei, their cytoplasm was a homogeneous.
In Group III, the structure of the blood capillaries wall was similar to normal. Plasma membranes of endothelial cells were clearly contoured with numerous outgrowths on the luminal surface, the cytoplasm was light, contained pinocytic vesicles and altered organelles. Nuclei of endothelial cells were large, euchromatin prevailed in the karyoplasm. Optically dense pericytes were close to the basement membrane of the capillaries.
According to biochemical studies, burn injury was accompanied by the endotoxemia, as evidenced by increased concentrations of medium molecular weight peptides and increased permeability of erythrocyte membranes.
Conclusions. In the late period after skin burn, rats develop significant destructive changes in the blood capillaries of the exocrine pancreas, which is manifested by the damage to the components of the nuclei and cytoplasm of endothelial cells. Early necrectomy and the application of porcine dermal xenograft on the 14th and 21st days showed a decrease in the content of toxic catabolites in the blood, which provide the recovery of blood capillary wall structure and normalization of transendothelial metabolism.

Key words: exocrine pancreas; blood capillaries; burn injury; endotoxemia; porcine lyophilized dermal xenograft

Full Text PDF

Burns. World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/burns
2. Klimenko MO, Netyukhailo LG. Burn disease (pathogenesis and treatment). Poltava, 2009. 118 р. [in Ukrainian]
3. Kozinets GP, et al. Clinical efficacy of Lactoprotein with sorbitol in patients with deep and widespread burns. Clinical surgery. 2008; (9):31-33. [in Ukrainian]
4. Netyukhailo LG, Kharchenko SV, Kostenko AG. Pathogenesis of burn disease (part 1). The world of medicine and biology. 2011; 1:127-31. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1713973
5. Netyukhailo LG, Kharchenko SV, Kostenko AG. Pathogenesis of burn disease (part 2). The world of medicine and biology. 2011; 1:131-35.  [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1706442
6. Demling RH. Burns: what are the pharmacological treatment options. Crit Care Med. 2008; 9:1895-1908.
7. Boyarskaya GM, Osadcha OI, Kozynets GP. Investigation of immunological reactivity of the organism in case of burn injury. Physiol J. 2000; 46(6):68-74. [in Ukrainian]
8. Klimenko MO, Netyukhailo LG. Pathobiochemistry of metabolism. Poltava, 2012. 37 p. [In Ukrainian].
9. Shupp J, Nasabzadeh T, Posenthal D, et al. A review of the local pathophysiologic bases of burn wound progression. J Burn Care Res. 2010; 31(6):849-873.
10. Kao CC, Garner WL. Acute burns. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000; 105:2482-2492.
11. Adly A. Oxidative stress and disease: an updated review. Res J Immunol. 2010; 3 (2):129-14.
12. Cakir B, Cevik H, Contuk G. Leptin ameliorates burn-induced multiple organ damage and modulates postburn immune response in rats. Regul Pept. 2005; 25(1-3):135-144.
13. Lachiewicz AM, Hauck CG, Weber DJ, Cairns BA, van Duin D. Bacterial Infections After Burn Injuries: Impact of Multidrug Resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2017; 65(12):2130-2136.
14. Zykova NP. Microscopic changes of the pancreas vessels in the dynamics after experimental thermal injury. Biomedical and Biosocial Anthropology. 2021; (42):23-28.
15. Kemoklidze SA. Morphofunctional changes in the pancreas in burn disease. Tbilisi, 1973. 55 p. [in Russian]
16. Daamen L, Smits F, Besselink M, Busch O, Rinkes I, Santvoort H, et al. A web-based overview, systematic review and meta-analysis of pancreatic anastomosis techniques following pancreatoduodenectomy. Pancreas. 2021;
17. Yuan Qionglan, Pan Aihua, Fu, Yuanshan, Dai Yalei. Anatomy and physiology of the pancreas. 2021.
18. Maden M. Optimal skin regeneration after full thickness thermal burn injury in the spiny mouse. Acomys cahirinus. Burns. 2018; 44(6):1509-1520.
19. Carta T, Gawaziuk JP, Diaz-Abele J, Liu S, Jeschke M, Logsetty S. Properties of an ideal burn dressing: A survey of burn survivors and front-line burn healthcare providers. Burns. 2019; 45(2):364-368.
20. Chouhan D, Dey N, Bhardwaj N, Mandal BB. Emerging and innovative approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration: Current status and advances. Biomaterials. 2019; 216:119267.
21. Greenhalgh DG. Management of Burns. New England Journal of Medicine. 2019; 380(24):2349-2359.
22. Luze H, Nischwitz S, Kamolz L-P. The use of antiseptics in burn wounds – Our perspective. Burns. 2020; 46(4): 980-981.
23. Momeni M, Fallah N, Bajouri A, Bagheri T, Orouji Z, Pahlevanpour P, et al. A randomized, double-blind, phase I clinical trial of fetal cell-based skin substitutes on healing of donor sites in burn patients. Burns. 2019; 45(4):914-922.
24. Jiang YN, Wang YX, Zheng YJ, Hu XY, He F, Shi WJ, et al. Clinical study of cell sheets containing allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts for the treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2020; 36(3):171-178. https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn501120-20191113-00426
25. Takayuki Y, Hayato I, Timothy W, King H, Hara D, Cooper K. Skin xenotransplantation: Historical review and clinical potential. Burns. 2018; 44(8):1738-49.
26. Huda NV, Tsimbaliuk AV. The content of amino acids and microelements in cryolyophilized xenoskin as an indicator of their biological activity. Medical chemistry. 2012; 14(1/50):70-72. [in Ukrainian]
27. Pavliuk B, Stechyshyn I, Kramar S, Chubka M, Hroshovyi T. Therapeutic efficacy of the developed gel “Xeliogel” on a burn wound model in rats. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2020; 48(287):331-334. PMID: 33130793.
28. Pavliuk B, Stechyshyn I, Kramar S, Chubka M, Hroshovyi T. The effect of gel “Xeliogel” at the stages of the regeneration of aseptic burn wound in the experiment. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2021; 49(293):352-355.
29. Klisch IM, Tsymbaliuk AV. The state of endogenous intoxication and indices of nonspecific immune defense of the body during the local use of a crushed lyophilized xenodermoimplant substrate for the closure of infected burn wounds of III-IV degrees in the experiment. Medical chemistry. 2013; 15(1): 53-57. [in Ukrainian]
30. Vons В. V., Chubka М. B., Groshovyi T. A.. The problem of treatment of burns’ wounds and characteristic of drugs for the local treatment of burns. Current issues in pharmacy and medicine: science and practice 2018; 11(1):119-125. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.14739/2409-2932.2018.1.123731
31. Regulations on the system of combustiological care in Ukraine. Ministry of Health of Ukraine, order #838 from 30.09.2013. Available from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z2026-13#Text [in Ukrainian]
32. Kozhemyakin YuM, Chromov OS, Filonenko MA, et al. Scientific and practical recommendations for the for the care and use of laboratory animals. Kiev: Interservis. 2017. 182 p. [in Ukrainian]
33. Horalskyi LP, Khomych VT, Kononskyi OI. Fundamentals of histological technique and morphofunctionalmethods of research in normal and pathology. Zhytomyr: ZhNAEU. 2019. 286 р. [in Ukrainian]
34. Togaybaev AA, Kurguzkin AV, Rikun IV, Karibzhanova RM. A method for the diagnosis of endogenous intoxication. Laboratory work. 1988; 9:22-24. [in Russian]
35. Vlizlo VV, Fedoruk RS, Ratych IB. Laboratory research methods in biology, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine: handbook. Lviv, 2012. 764 p. [in Ukrainian]
36. Andriychuk IYa, Soroka SE. The effect of induced carcinogenesis on biological markers of endotoxemia. Biology wa tibbiyot muammolari. 2017; 2,1 (95):399-400. [in Russian]
37. Yavorska SI. Lisnychuk NYe, Andriichuk IYa, Soroka YuV, Stravska MYa. Influence of induced carcinogenesis on biological markers of endotoxemia. World of Medicine and Biology. 2018; 1(63):137-140.
38. Avtandilov GG. Medical morphometry. Moscow: Medicine. 1990. 384 p. [in Russian]
39. Zikova NP, Nebesna ZM, Kramar SB, Litvinyuk SO. Influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on the morphology of the pancreas (literature review). Bulletin of Medical and Biological Research. 2020; (4):143-149. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.11603/bmbr.2706-6290.2020.4.11828
40. Zinenko DYu, Tverdokhlib IV. Ultrastructural characteristics of the hemomicrocirculatory bed and parenchymatous-stromal elements of the pancreas and liver in a model of acute pancreatitis using different doses of sodium taurocholate. Morphologia. 2020; 14(1):23-34. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.26641/1997-9665.2020.1.23-34
41. Quesada R, Simon C, Radosevic A, Poves I, Grande L, Burdio F. Morphological changes of the pancreas after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Scientific Reports. 2019; 9(1):14517.
42. Nebesna ZM, Volkov KS. Structural and morphometric reorganization of pulmonary vessels after experimental thermal trauma and under conditions of lyophilized xenoskin substrate application. Bulletin of morphology. 2015; 21(2):348-352. [in Ukrainian]
43. Mukha SYu. Histological and morphometric changes of rat testicles after experimental thermal trauma and under the use of xenodermal substrate. Clinical anatomy and operative surgery 2019; 18(4(70)):17-23. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.24061/1727-0847.18.4.2019.3
44. Koritskiy VG, Nebesna ZM, Lykhatsky PG. Ultrastructural changes of the thyroid gland in the dynamics after experimental thermal trauma under the conditions of application of crushed substrate of lyophilized xenoskin. Clinical anatomy and operative surgery. 2018; 17(4):30-5. [in Ukrainian] https://doi.org/10.24061/1727-0847.17.4.2018.5
45. Matveev SB, Smirnov SV, Tazina EV, Shakhlamov MV, Godkov MA, Borisov VS. The dynamics of endogenic intoxication in patients with extensive burns. Klin Lab Diagn. 2013; 2:10-2. [in Russian]
46. Krynytska I, Marushchak M, Svan O, Akimova V, Mazur L, Habor H. The indices of endogenous intoxication in rats with carrageenan solution consumption. Georgian Med News. 2018; 279:196-200.

Zykova N, Kramar S, Lisnychuk N, Dovgalyuk A, Nebesna Z. Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft. Cell Organ Transpl. 2021; 9(2):116-124. doi:10.22494/cot.v9i2.131

Creative Commons License
Is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.