Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft

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Cell and Organ Transplantology. 2021; 9(2):in press.
DOI: 10.22494/cot.v9i2.131

Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft

Zykova N., Kramar S., Lisnychuk N., Dovgalyuk A., Nebesna Z. 

  • I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University


Deep burns are characterized not only by skin damage, but also cause morphological and functional changes in all organs and systems of the body, which are defined as burn disease. Mediators of inflammatory response and nitroso-oxidative stress in thermal injury adversely affect the internal organs, including the pancreas. Xenografts made from porcine skin by cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization and mincing are used to treat burns.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the ultrastructural changes of blood capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas in the late period after skin burn and under its treatment with lyophilized porcine dermal xenografts.
Materials and methods. 46 adult outbred albino rats were divided into three groups: Group I – intact animals, Group II – rats with second-degree burn injury, Group III – animals with burn, which underwent necrectomy and the wound was covered with minced lyophilized porcine dermal graft. On the 14th and 21st days, electron microscopic examination of blood capillaries of the exocrine pancreas was performed and the erythrocyte index of intoxication, levels and coefficient of medium molecular weight peptides in the blood were determined.
Results. In Group I, the wall of the capillaries was formed by elongated endothelial cells, which localized on the basement membrane; there were single erythrocytes in the lumen. Endothelial cells contained an elongated nucleus, euchromatin prevailed in the karyoplasm, heterochromatin in the form of small granules had a marginal location. The luminal surface of the endothelium formed outgrowths of the cell membrane, which increased the area of the capillary wall. Pericyte nuclei contained euchromatin.
In Group II, the ultrastructure of blood capillaries was changed – their lumens were enlarged and contained clusters of blood cells. The integrity of capillary wall was disrupted. The nuclei were compacted with a prevalence of heterochromatin, pyknotic, had deep invagination of nucleolemma. The cytoplasm of endothelial cells was light, edematous; organelles are significantly damaged with single pinocytic vesicles. Pericytes contained electron-dense nuclei, their cytoplasm was a homogeneous.
In Group III, the structure of the blood capillaries wall was similar to normal. Plasma membranes of endothelial cells were clearly contoured with numerous outgrowths on the luminal surface, the cytoplasm was light, contained pinocytic vesicles and altered organelles. Nuclei of endothelial cells were large, euchromatin prevailed in the karyoplasm. Optically dense pericytes were close to the basement membrane of the capillaries.
According to biochemical studies, burn injury was accompanied by the endotoxemia, as evidenced by increased concentrations of medium molecular weight peptides and increased permeability of erythrocyte membranes.
Conclusions. In the late period after skin burn, rats develop significant destructive changes in the blood capillaries of the exocrine pancreas, which is manifested by the damage to the components of the nuclei and cytoplasm of endothelial cells. Early necrectomy and the application of porcine dermal xenograft on the 14th and 21st days showed a decrease in the content of toxic catabolites in the blood, which provide the recovery of blood capillary wall structure and normalization of transendothelial metabolism.

Key words: exocrine pancreas; blood capillaries; burn injury; endotoxemia; porcine lyophilized dermal xenograft

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Zykova N, Kramar S, Lisnychuk N, Dovgalyuk A, Nebesna Z. Ultrastructural changes of capillaries of the rat exocrine pancreas at the late burn injury and the application of lyophilized porcine dermal xenograft. Cell Organ Transpl. 2021; 9(2):in press. doi:10.22494/cot.v9i2.131

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